Instruments/equipment

Non-recording raingauge

It measures total rainfall generally for 24 h period but it can be used for any specific time interval. Rainfall is expressed in mm d-1.

Recording raingauge

It measures automatically continuous rainfall and records in a graph paper. Rainfall is expressed in mm d-1.

Stevenson screen

It houses four thermometers. Dry bulb and wet bulb temperatures are used to calculate relative humidity. Minimum and maximum thermometers record minimum and maximum temperatures of a particular day. All the temperatures are expressed in °C.

Pan evaporimter

It measures the amount of water evaporated from an open pan. Evaporation is expressed in mm d-1.

Anemometer

It measures wind speed and expressed in km d 1.

Wind vane

It measures the direction of wind and expressed in 30 different directions like N, S, E, W, NE, etc.

Sunshine recorder

It records the bright sunshine and expressed in hours.

Soil thermometer

Soil thermometers at 5, 15, and 30 cm depths measure soil temperature in the respective depth and expressed in °C